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APS干货:文化管理复习心得

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2016-12-12 来源:武汉新东方前途出国综合整理


摘要:

要知道,cultural management在德国其实很多高校是没有特别和BWL区分开的。WIKI对于这个专业的定义是:德语一般为Kulturmanagement oder Kulturbetrieb

 

The German word "Kulturbetrieb" has two major shades of meaning:

 

From a macro-sociological perspective, "Kulturbetrieb" is an abstract social science term denoting a sector (or “system”, or “field”, or “segment”, etc.) of society, which, from the 18th century onwards, gradually developed together with modern bourgeois society, forming internally differentiated institutions. (The term “cultural industry” is deliberately not used in this context because this term is mainly embedded in an economic view of the field.)

 

Secondly, "Kulturbetrieb" also denotes an enterprise or cultural organisation (e.g. an association, foundation, commercial company, limited company, etc.) which combines and uses human and financial resources to achieve certain aims in the most efficient way possible. At this micro-level, both organisations and individual actors are relevant.

 

核心的几个知识点其实和我们国内的文化管理有区别的,首先就是文化产业方面:

 

Cultural industry:

 

The notion of cultural industries generally includes textual, music, television, and film production and publishing, as well as crafts and design.

 

也就是说上述领域的东西都要了解。 

 

For some countries, architecture, the visual and performing arts, sport, advertising, and cultural tourism may be included as adding value to the content and generating values for individuals and societies. They are knowledge-based and labour-intensive, creating employment and wealth. By nurturing creativity and fostering innovation societies will maintain cultural diversity and enhance economic performance.

 

一般来讲在论述文化产业方面个人建议结合中国国情与欧洲国家作对比,不一定是德国,可以是自己比较熟悉的国家。

 

Cultural industries worldwide have adapted to the new digital technologies and to the arrival of national, regional and international (de)regulatory policies. These factors have radically altered the context in which cultural goods, services, and investments flow between countries and, consequently, these industries have undergone a process of internationalization and progressive concentration, resulting in the formation of a few big conglomerates: a new global oligopoly.

 

那对于这个专业的解释这个短语很重要:a new global oligopoly

 

当然了Cultural resources management 也是一定要提一提的,基本下述就可以囊括:

 

heritage context:

 

Historic properties (as listed or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places)

Older properties that may have cultural value, but may or may not be eligible for the National Register

Historic properties that have cultural value beyond their historicity

Native American graves and cultural items

Shipwrecks

Museum collections

Historical documents

Religious sites

Religious practices

Cultural use of natural resources

Folklife, tradition, and other social institutions

Theater groups, orchestras, and other community cultural amenities

 

德国人是很喜欢例子的,欧美例子很多,usa和uk就不错:

 

A significant proportion of the archaeological investigation in countries that have heritage management legislation including the USA and UK is conducted on sites under threat of development. In the US, such investigations are now done by private companies on a consulting basis, and a national organization exists to support the practice of CRM.Museums, besides being popular tourist attractions, often play roles in conservation of, and research on, threatened sites, including as repositories for collections from sites slated for destruction.

 

Management of cultural organizations作为文化管理比较重要的方法论,只有能过回答精准,一般应付APS就已足够了。

 

The vocation of management in cultural and creative sectors is the subject of research and improvement initiatives, by organizations such as Arts and Business which take a partnership approach to involving professional business people in running and mentoring arts organizations. Some universities now offer vocational degrees.

 

The management of cultural heritage is underpinned by academic research in archaeology, ethnography and history. The broader subject is also underpinned by research in sociology and culture studies.


 

 

至于Cultural landscape 确实不好下定义,一般就用例子即可:

 

Examples:

 

Tongariro Mahuia River in the Tongariro National Park, New Zealand

 

"In 1993 Tongariro National Park, became the first property to be inscribed on the World Heritage List under the revised criteria describing cultural landscapes. The mountains at the heart of the park have cultural and religious significance for the Maori people and symbolize the spiritual links between this community and its environment. The park has active and extinct volcanoes, a diverse range of ecosystems and some spectacular landscapes."

 

它的三个关键论述点:

"a landscape designed and created intentionally by man"

an "organically evolved landscape" which may be a "relict (or fossil) landscape" or a "continuing landscape"

an "associative cultural landscape" which may be valued because of the "religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element."

好吧,如果审核老师非要纠结它到底是什么,is the "cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man."

应该还是能讲清楚的,一定要例子,否则肯定会被追问!

 

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