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    深度探究托福听力的出题规律和方法

    2015-02-27 来源:

            对于托福听力已经获得20分的广大考生,经常出现一个很大的疑问:为什么在听懂讲座的80%以上的情况下,还是总会做错题目呢,而且出错题目类型不定。首先,大家应该对 自己的听力能力要有信心,而再提升的方面有以下几点:

        第一 听力文本的结构性

        相信做过TPO听力两遍以上的同学都很清楚,托福听力的讲座部分是有很明显的层次结构性的,那么我们要在做平时的准备当中,在听懂了之后善于总结和概括每部分的大意。 因为在了然大意之后,文章的出题点也就基本形成了。下面是TPO24的鳄鱼讲座为例:

        "Take American alligators. If you were to go to a swamp during the breeding season, you'd hear a chorus of sounds, deep grunts, hisses, these are sounds that male alligators make.

        And some of them are powerful enough to make the water vibrate. This sends a strong, go-away message to the other males. So the alligator can focus on sending other sound waves through the water, sound waves that you and I couldn't even hear since they are at such low frequency. But they do reach the female alligator, who then goes to find and mate with the male.

        Vocalization is um...well, it is used for other reasons..."

        通过信号词(take American alligators和used for other reasons)确定这是一个小层次,在笔记中,相信大家都会记下:

        Ame alligator

        1. Send go away messa-> other

        2. Reach female(mate)

        我们可以得知:美洲鳄发声来驱赶同性和吸引异性,总结为美洲短吻鳄的发声的目的。再看题目

        According to the professor, what are two functions of the sounds made by male alligators? Click 2 answers

        To frighten predators

        To attract mates

        To locate hatchlings

        To threaten other males

        我们可以看出是细节题,但考的内容是以上总结的部分:短吻鳄的发声的目的/功能,所以很容易的选出B和D两个答案。

        总结每个部分的分论点有两大优点:第一 能够预判出题的大致内容;第二能防止信息混乱,尤其是在做下面的题目时,可以起到区别和定位的作用。

        第二 听力题目理解上的改变

        很多时候,考生很困惑主旨题的选项,虽然自己明白了大致的内容,为什么有时会做错题目呢?针对这个问题,我给出以下几个小技巧:

        1. 抽象词具体化理解

        托福听力常考的抽象词:difference、comparison、way、method、importance等

        如果出现difference/comparison,我们就要明确本文主题是进行比较和对比的

        如果出现way/method/approach,我们就要明确开头会出现:how 这样的字眼,那么我们就要去选择有关方法的答案

        2. 极端词排除法

        在选项中常出现极端词汇为:first, second, the most..., new, never, always,而这些词往往是错误选项,我们不需要去过多的考虑

        3. 句意颠倒

        选项中常出现答案是与听力原稿中完全相反的情况,我们需要认真听取这个细节,最好是在笔记中用符号将前后两个名词联系起来,最常用"—>",例如(TPO24 考古):

        "And with that came increased seasonality, that is, the summers became warmer, and the winters actually became colder. These extreme shifts would have put a lot of stress on the bodies of animals that were used to a more moderate range of temperatures."

        "But when the seasons became more distinct, the plant communities were pulled apart, that meant, in any given area, there was less plant diversity. And as a result, uh, so the theory goes, the Ice Age animals that depended on plant diversity couldn't survive."

        笔记上的记录为:

        Extreme temp -> stress -> animal body

        Temp-> plant less diversity -> animal not survive

        概括为温度的变化使动物灭绝,因为植物多样性降低,很多以此为食的动物灭绝了。

        26. According to the climate change theory, how did the climate change at the end of the ice age make it more difficult for large animals to survive? Click on 2 answers

        By reducing the size of their habitats

        By forcing them to endure a wider range of temperatures

        By reducing the variety of food available to them

        By forcing them to live near humans

        因此答案就是C。

        4. 时刻联系主旨

        很多时候,我们在听的一知半解的情况下,或者在两个选项中纠结时,需要及时联想起本篇听力的主旨,这样就可以将答案选出。但有时候我们要多依靠每个部分的topic sentence解题。例如(TPO 第二个对话):

        Professor: That's it. Basically. Um... so exactly what is it you don't understand?

        Student: OK. I guess what I am really confused about is how the topography of the land, the mountains and valleys and stuff, affects precipitation.

        笔记记录为:

        Topog -> precipitation     学生不明白的是:topography如何影响降雨量,所以答案里面必须要有topography和precipitation。

        20. What aspect of the hydrologic cycle is the student confused about?

        How the process of evaporation works

        How topographical features affect precipitation

        How water vapor in the atmosphere becomes rain

        How lake water fits into the cycle

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