• 新托福阅读修辞目的题解析

    2015-03-14 来源:

            Paragraph 1: It should be obvious that cetaceans-whales, porpoises, and dolphins-are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke3 and blowhole4 cannot disguise their affinities with land-dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like. Extinct but, already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.

        Directions: Mark your answer by filling in the oval next to your choice.

        1. In paragraph 1, what does the author say about the presence of a blowhole in cetaceans?

        ○It clearly indicates that cetaceans are mammals.

        ○It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals.

        ○It is the main difference between cetaceans and land-dwelling mammals.

        ○It cannot yield clues about the origins of cetaceans.

        Paragraph 5: An even more exciting find was reported in 1994, also from Pakistan. The now extinct whale Ambulocetus natans (“the walking whale that swam”] lived in the Tethys Sea 49 million years ago. It lived around 3 million years after Pakicetus but 9 million before Basilosaurus. The fossil luckily includes a good portion of the hind legs. The legs were strong and ended in long feet very much like those of a modern pinniped. The legs were certainly functional both on land and at sea. The whale retained a tail and lacked a fluke, the major means of locomotion in modern cetaceans. The structure of the backbone shows, however, that Ambulocetus swam like modern whales by moving the rear portion of its body up and down, even though a fluke was missing. The large hind legs were used for propulsion in water. On land, where it probably bred and gave birth, AmbuIocetus may have moved around very much like a modern sea lion. It was undoubtedly a whale that linked life on land with life at sea

        2. Why does the author use the word luckily in mentioning that the Ambulocetus natans fossil included hind legs?

        ○Fossil legs of early whales are a rare find.

        ○The legs provided important information about the evolution of cetaceans.

        ○The discovery allowed scientists to reconstruct a complete skeleton of the whale.

        ○Until that time, only the front legs of early whales had been discovered.

        Paragraph 5: The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are crucial for understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life. Children normally desire to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents, because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their demands immediately. Yet children, also fearing their parents‘ punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses. The Freudian perspective, in a sense: sees us as “steam engines.” By holding in rather than venting “steam,” we set the stage for future explosions. Pent-up aggressive impulses demand outlets. They may be expressed toward parents in indirect ways such as destroying furniture, or they may be expressed toward strangers later in life.

        3. Freud describes people as steam engines in order to make the point that people

        ○Deliberately build up their aggression to make themselves stronger

        ○Usually release aggression in explosive ways

        ○Must vent their aggression to prevent it from building up

        ○Typically lose their aggression if they do not express it

        Paragraph 4: The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about “obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though we are so many living machines.” With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standing in the community. Unlike artisan workshops in which apprentices worked closely with the masters supervising them, factories sharply separated workers from management. Few workers rose through the ranks to supervisory positions, and even fewer could achieve the artisan’s dream of setting up one‘s own business. Even well-paid workers sensed their decline in status.

        4. In paragraph 4, the author includes the quotation from a mill worker in order to

        ○Support the idea that it was difficult for workers to adjust to working in factories

        ○To show that workers sometimes quit because of the loud noise made by factory machinery

        ○Argue that clocks did not have a useful function in factories

        ○Emphasize that factories were most successful when workers revealed their complaints

        Paragraph 3: Tunas, mackerels, and billfishes have made streamlining into an art form. Their bodies are sleek and compact. The body shapes of tunas, in fact, are nearly ideal from an engineering point of view. Most species lack scales over most of the body, making it smooth and slippery. The eyes lie flush with the body and do not protrude at all. They are also covered with a slick, transparent lid that reduces drag. The fins are stiff, smooth, and narrow, qualities that also help cut drag. When not in use, the fins are tucked into special grooves or depressions so that they lie flush with the body and do not break up its smooth contours. Airplanes retract their landing gear while in flight for the same reason.

        5. Why does the author mention that Airplanes retract their landing gear while in flight?

        ○To show that air resistance and water resistance work differently from each other

        ○To argue that some fishes are better designed than airplanes are

        ○To provide evidence that airplane engine have studied the design of fish bodies

        ○To demonstrate a similarity in design between certain fishes and airplanes

        Paragraph 2: During Jackson’s second term, his opponents had gradually come together to form the Whig party. Whigs and Democrats held different attitudes toward the changes brought about by the market, banks, and commerce. The Democrats tended to view society as a continuing conflict between “the people”-farmers, planters, and workers-and a set of greedy aristocrats. This “paper money aristocracy” of bankers and investors manipulated the banking system for their own profit, Democrats claimed, and sapped the nation‘s virtue by encouraging speculation and the desire for sudden, unearned wealth. The Democrats wanted the rewards of the market without sacrificing the features of a simple agrarian republic. They wanted the wealth that the market offered without the competitive, changing society; the complex dealing; the dominance of urban centers; and the loss of independence that came with it.

        6. The author mentions bankers and investors in the passage as an example of which of the following?

        ○The Democratic Party’s main source of support

        ○The people that Democrats claimed were unfairly becoming rich

        ○The people most interested in a return to a simple agrarian republic

        ○One of the groups in favor of Andrew Jackson‘s presidency

        Paragraph 3: Whigs, on the other hand, were more comfortable with the market. For them, commerce and economic development were agents of civilization. Nor did the Whigs envision any conflict in society between farmers and workers on the one hand and businesspeople and bankers on the other. Economic growth would benefit everyone by raising national income and expanding opportunity. The government’s responsibility was to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability.

        7. According to paragraph 3, which of the following describes the Whig Party‘s view of the role of government?

        ○To regulate the continuing conflict between farmers and businesspeople

        ○To restrict the changes brought about by the market

        ○To maintain an economy that allowed all capable citizens to benefit

        ○To reduce the emphasis on economic development

        Paragraph 1:Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal. Smiling is apparently a universal sign of friendliness and approval. Baring the teeth in a hostile way, as noted by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, may be a universal sign of anger. As the originator of the theory of evolution, Darwin believed that the universal recognition of facial expressions would have survival value. For example, facial expressions could signal the approach of enemies (or friends) in the absence of language.

        8. The author mentions “Baring the teeth in a hostile way” in order to

        ○Differentiate one possible meaning of a particular facial expression from other meanings of it

        ○Support Darwin’s theory of evolution

        ○Provide an example of a facial expression whose meaning is widely understood

        ○Contrast a facial expression that is easily understood with other facial expressions

        Paragraph 5: The weather, in its many forms, is the main agent of erosion. Rain washes away loose soil and penetrates cracks in the rocks. Carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the rainwater, forming a weak acid (carbonic acid) that may chemically attack the rocks. The rain seeps underground and the water may reappear later as springs. These springs are the sources of streams and rivers, which cut through the rocks and carry away debris from the mountains to the lowlands.

        9. Why does the author mention Carbon dioxide in the passage?

        ○To explain the origin of a chemical that can erode rocks

        ○To contrast carbon dioxide with carbonic acid

        ○To give an example of how rainwater penetrates soil

        ○To argue for the desirability of preventing erosion

        Paragraph 1: In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being. Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces. Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals.

        10. According to paragraph 1, why did some societies develop and repeat ceremonial actions?

        ○To establish a positive connection between the members of the society

        ○To help society members better understand the forces controlling their food supply

        ○To distinguish their beliefs from those of other societies

        ○To increase the society’s prosperity

        Paragraph 6: But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. Therefore, additional explanations are needed. One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. For example, one sign of this condition is the appearance of the comic vision, since comedy requires sufficient detachment to view some deviations from social norms as ridiculous rather than as serious threats to the welfare of the entire group. Another condition that contributes to the development of autonomous theater is the emergence of the aesthetic sense. For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.

        11.Why does the author mention “comedy”?

        ○To give an example of early types of theater

        ○To explain how theater helps a society respond to threats to its welfare

        ○To help explain why detachment is needed for the development of theater

        ○To show how theatrical performers become detached from other members of society.

        Paragraph 4:Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes. Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures. In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick. Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired. Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction within the last few generations have made it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material. Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred ago.

        12. In paragraph 4, what does the author imply about modern buildings?

        ○They occupy much less space than buildings constructed one hundred years ago.

        ○They are not very different from the building of a few generations ago.

        ○The weigh less in relation to their size than buildings constructed one hundred years ago.

        ○They take a long time to build as a result of their complex construction methods.

        Paragraph 6: Much of the world’s great architecture has been constructed of stone because of its beauty, permanence, and availability. In the past, whole cities grew from the arduous task of cutting and piling stone upon. Some of the world’s finest stone architecture can be seen in the ruins of the ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the eastern Andes Mountains of Peru. The doorways and windows are made possible by placing over the open spaces thick stone beams that support the weight from above. A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments. The arch was used was used by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in aboveground structures. Roman builders perfected the semicircular arch made of separate blocks of stone. As a method of spanning space, the arch can support greater weight than a horizontal beam. It works in compression to divert the weight above it out to the sides, where the weight is borne by the vertical elements on either side of the arch. The arch is among the many important structural breakthroughs that have characterized architecture throughout the centuries.

        13. Why does the author include a description of how the “doorways and windows” of Machu Picchu were constructed?

        ○To indicate that the combined skeletons and skins of the stone buildings of Machu Picchu were similar to igloos and adobe structures

        ○To indicate the different kinds of stones that had to be cut to build Machu Picchu

        ○To provide an illustration of the kind of construction that was required before arches were invented

        ○To explain how ancient builders reduced the amount of time necessary to construct buildings from stone.

        Paragraph 3: The first wells were drilled into the Ogallala during the drought years of the early 1930’s. The ensuing rapid expansion of irrigation agriculture, especially from the 1950’s onward, transformed the economy of the region. More than 100,000 wells now tap the Ogallala. Modern irrigation devices, each capable of spraying 4.5 million liters of water a day, have produced a landscape dominated by geometric patterns of circular green islands of crops. Ogallala water has enabled the High Plains region to supply significant amounts of the cotton, sorghum, wheat, and corn grown in the United States. In addition, 40 percent of American grain-fed beef cattle are fattened here.

        14. In paragraph 3, why does the author provide the information that 40 percent of American cattle are fattened in the High Plains?

        ○To suggest that crop cultivation is not the most important part of the economy of the High Plains

        ○To indicate that not all economic activity in the High Plains is dependent on irrigation

        ○To provide another example of how water from the Ogallala has transformed the economy of the High Plains

        ○To contrast cattle-fattening practices in the High Plains with those used in other region of the United States

        Paragraph 5: Even the kind of stability defined as simple lack of change is not always associated with maximum diversity. At least in temperate zones, maximum diversity is often found in mid-successional stages, not in the climax community. Once a redwood forest matures, for example, the kinds of species and the number of individuals growing on the forest floor are reduced. In general, diversity, by itself, does not ensure stability. Mathematical models of ecosystems likewise suggest that diversity does not guarantee ecosystem stability—just the opposite, in fact. A more complicated system is, in general, more likely than a simple system to break down. (A fifteen-speed racing bicycle is more likely to break down than a child’s tricycle.)

        15. In paragraph 5, why does the author provide the information that “(A fifteen-speed racing bicycle is more likely to break down than a child’s tricycle)”?

        ○To illustrate a general principle about the stability of systems by using an everyday example

        ○To demonstrate that an understanding of stability in ecosystems can be applied to help understand stability in other situations

        ○To make a comparison that supports the claim that, in general, stability increases with diversity

        ○To provide an example that contradicts mathematical models of ecosystems

        Paragraph 2: One of the most puzzling aspects of the paintings is their location. Other rock paintings—for example, those of Bushmen in South Africa—are either located near cave entrances or completely in the open. Cave paintings in France and Spain, however, are in recesses and caverns far removed from original cave entrances. This means that artists were forced to work in cramped spaces and without sources of natural light. It also implies that whoever made them did not want them to be easily found. Since cave dwellers normally lived close to entrances, there must have been some reason why so many generations of Lascaux cave dwellers hid their art.

        16. Why does the author mention Bushmen in South Africa in paragraph 2?

        ○To suggest that ancient artists from all over the world painted animals on rocks

        ○To contrast the location of their rock paintings to those found at Lascaux

        ○To support the claim that early artists worked in cramped spaces

        ○To give an example of other artists who painted in hidden locations

        Paragraph 3: Scholars offer three related but different opinions about the mysterious origin and significance of these paintings. One opinion is that the paintings were a record of seasonal migrations made by herds. Because some paintings were made directly over others, obliterating them, it is probable that a painting’s value ended with the migration it pictured. Unfortunately, this explanation fails to explain the hidden locations, unless the migrations were celebrated with secret ceremonies.

        17. Why does the author mention secret ceremonies?

        ○To present a common opinion held by many scholars

        ○To suggest a similarity between two opinions held by scholars

        ○To suggest a possible explanation for a weakness in an opinion expressed in the passage

        ○To give evidence that contradicts a major opinion expressed in the passage

        Paragraph 5: Large wind farms might also interfere with the flight patterns of migratory birds in certain areas, and they have killed large birds of prey (especially hawks, falcons, and eagles) that prefer to hunt along the same ridge lines that are ideal for wind turbines. The killing of birds of prey by wind turbines has pitted environmentalists who champion wildlife protection against environmentalists who promote renewable wind energy. Researchers are evaluating how serious this problem is and hope to find ways to eliminate or sharply reduce this problem. Some analysts also contend that the number of birds killed by wind turbines is dwarfed by birds killed by other human-related sources and by the potential loss of entire bird species from possible global warming. Recorded deaths of birds of prey and other birds in wind farms in the United States currently amount to no more than 300 per year. By contrast, in the United States an estimated 97 million birds are killed each year when they collide with buildings made of plate glass, 57 million are killed on highways each year; at least 3.8 million die annually from pollution and poisoning; and millions of birds are electrocuted each year by transmission and distribution lines carrying power produced by nuclear and coal power plants.

        18. In paragraph 5, why does the author give details about the estimated numbers of birds killed each year?

        ○To argue that wind farms should not be built along ridge lines

        ○To point out that the deaths of migratory birds exceed the deaths of birds of prey

        ○To explain why some environmentalists oppose wind energy

        ○To suggest that wind turbines result in relatively few bird deaths

        Paragraph 3:The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the North American frontier, Lewis and had experienced great difficulty finding game west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their first elk. To keep 40 people alive that winter, they consumed approximately 150 elk and 20 deer. And when game moved out of the lowlands in early spring, the expedition decided to return east rather than face possible starvation. Later on in the early years of the nineteenth century, when Fort Vancouver became the headquarters of the Hudson‘s Bay Company, deer populations continued to fluctuate. David Douglas, Scottish botanical explorer of the 1830s. Found a disturbing change in the animal life around the fort during the period between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832. A recent Douglas biographer states:“ The deer which once picturesquely dotted the meadows around the fort were gone [in 1832], hunted to extermination in order to protect the crops.”

        19.The author tells the story of the explorers Lewis and Clark in paragraph 3 in order to illustrate which of the following points?

        ○The number of deer within the Puget sound region has varied over time.

        ○Most of the explorers who came to the Puget sound area were primarily interested than in the West.

        ○There was more game for hunting in the East of the United States than in the West.

        ○Individual explorers were not as successful at locating games as were the trading companies.

        Paragraph 4:Reduction in numbers of game should have boded ill for their survival in later times. A worsening of the plight of deer was to be expected as settlers encroached on the land, logging, burning, and clearing, eventually replacing a wilderness landscape with roads, cities, towns, and factories. No doubt the numbers of deer declined still further. Recall the fate of the Columbian white-tailed deer, now in a protected status. But for the black-tailed deer, human pressure has had just the opposite effect. Wild life zoologist Hulmut Buechner(1953), in reviewing the nature of biotic changes in Washington through recorded time, Says that “since the early 1940s, the state has had more deer than at any other time in its history, the winter population fluctuating around approximately 320,000 deer (mule and black-tailed deer), which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for an indefinite period

        20. Why does the author ask readers to recall “the fate of the Columbian white-tailed deer” in the discussion of changes in the wilderness landscape?

        ○To provide support for the idea that habitat destruction would lead to population decline

        ○To compare how two species of deer caused biotic changes in the wilderness environment

        ○To provide an example of a species of deer that has successfully adapted to human settlement

        ○To argue that some deer species must be given a protected status

        Paragraph 3:The subjects of the paintings are mostly animals. The paintings rest on bare walls, with no backdrops or environmental trappings. Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death of injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art. Another explanation for the focus on animals might be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting. This theory is suggested by evidence of chips in the painted figures, perhaps made by spears thrown at the drawings. But if improving their hunting luck was the chief motivation for the paintings, it is difficult to explain why only a few show signs of having been speared. Perhaps the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals. Cave art seems to have reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period, when the herds of game were decreasing.

        21.According to paragraph 3, scholars explained chips in the painted figures of animals by proposing that

        ○Upper Paleolithic artists used marks to record the animals they had seen

        ○the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals for hunting

        ○the artists had removed rough spots on the cave walls

        ○Upper Paleolithic people used the paintings to increase their luck at hunting

        22.Why does the author mention that Upper Paleolithic cave art seemed to have “reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period, when the herds of game were decreasing”?

        ○To argue that Upper Paleolithic art creased to include animals when herds of game became scarce

        ○To provide support for the idea that the aim of the paintings was to increase the supply of animals for hunting

        ○To emphasize the continued improvement in the quality of cave art throughout the Upper Paleolithic period

        ○To show the direct connection between the decrease in herds of game and the end of the Upper Paleolithic period

        Paragraph 2: Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demands of the laws of physics, not the sculptor’s aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze).

        23. Why does the author discuss the bronze statues of horses created by artists in the early Italian Renaissance?

        ○To provide an example of a problem related to the laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome

        ○To argue that fine artists are unconcerned with the laws of physics

        ○To contrast the relative sophistication of modern artists in solving problems related to the laws of physics

        ○To note an exceptional piece of art constructed without the aid of technology

        Paragraph 2: If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period of geological history. This break in Earth‘s history is marked by a mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then, suddenly, they disappeared.

        24. In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then suddenly disappeared?

        ○To support the claim that the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous is the best-documented of the dozen or so mass extinctions in the geological record

        ○To explain why as many as half of the species on Earth at the time are believed to have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous

        ○To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous

        ○To provide evidence that an impact can be large enough to disturb the environment of the entire planet and cause an ecological disaster

        Paragraph 2: These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscopes (for roughly $1,000 apiece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each). He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.

        25. The author discusses phonograph parlors in paragraph 2 in order to

        ○Explain Edison’s financial success

        ○Describe the model used to design Kinetoscope parlors

        ○Contrast their popularity to that of Kinetoscope parlors

        ○Illustrate how much more technologically advanced Kinetoscope parlors were

        参考答案:

        1. ○It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals.

        2. ○The legs provided important information about the evolution of cetaceans.

        3. ○must vent their aggression to prevent it from building up

        4.○support the idea that it was difficult for workers to adjust to working in factories

        5.○To demonstrate a similarity in design between certain fishes and airplanes

        6.○The people that Democrats claimed were unfairly becoming rich

        7.○To maintain an economy that allowed all capable citizens to benefit

        8.○provide an example of a facial expression whose meaning is widely understood

        9.○To explain the origin of a chemical that can erode rocks

        10. ○To increase the society’s prosperity

        11. ○To help explain why detachment is needed for the development of theater

        12. ○he weigh less in relation to their size than buildings constructed one hundred years ago.

        13. ○To provide an illustration of the kind of construction that was required before arches were invented

        14. ○To provide another example of how water from the Ogallala has transformed the economy of the High Plains

        15. ○To illustrate a general principle about the stability of systems by using an everyday example

        16. ○To contrast the location of their rock paintings to those found at Lascaux

        17. ○To suggest a possible explanation for a weakness in an opinion expressed in the passage

        18.○To suggest that wind turbines result in relatively few bird deaths

        19. ○The number of deer within the Puget sound region has varied over time.

        20. ○To provide support for the idea that habitat destruction would lead to population decline

        21. ○Upper Paleolithic people used the paintings to increase their luck at hunting

        22. ○To provide support for the idea that the aim of the paintings was to increase the supply of animals for hunting

        23. ○To provide an example of a problem related to the laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome

        24. ○To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous.

        25. ○Describe the model used to design Kinetoscope parlors

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