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张喆美国中学尊享规划师

Alevel写作高分秘诀(2)
更多详情
 

 

A:逻辑分析——Analysis  &  A: 论据或案例——Application
 

这两个A的部分一般是放在一起的,我们说论述一个问题要有理有据,理就是analysis的目的,而据就是论据或者是案例也就是application。

如果回到刚刚那个题目,我们需要在段落的组织上先呼应题目进行分段,可以先去描述国内的影响,再去描述国外的影响,如:

Internal consequences include the impact on savings and investment, the re-distribution of income, menu costs and shoe-leather costs.

Firstly, inflation will reduce the purchasing power. Some people may

gain and some people may lose as a result of inflation. For example, if the rate of interest does not rise in line with inflation, borrowers will gain and lenders (savers) will lose. This is because borrowers will pay back less in real terms

and lenders will receive less. As a result, there will be a redistribution of income.

Inflation can also discourage investors from entering a market or making further investment due to the unpredictability and risks associated with inflation. Investors may wait and see or not invest at all, resulting in a fall in aggregate demand and output level in the economy.

Moreover, inflation will cause an increase of the shoe-leather and menu costs for producers. Shoe-leather cost refers to the amount of time , money and resources spent on seeking alternative suppliers or bargaining for lower prices of goods. Menu cost refers to the cost involved in changing prices. For example, catalogs, price tags, bar codes and advertisements have to be changed. This involves staff time and is unpopular with customers.

External consequences include the impact on trade and the exchange rate and international investment flows.

Inflation will make exports less competitive in international markets since the price of domestic goods will be higher. Consumers in the domestic economy may find imports of the same good to be cheaper. As a result, there will be an increase in import expenditure and a fall in export revenue.

Inflation can thus be likely to lead to a rise in the current account deficit, which occurs when the value of goods imported exceeds the value of goods exported. With persistent and growing current account deficit, the exchange rate will depreciate and the domestic currency will be worth less than before the inflation.

要注意,在阐述每个论点的段落里,Analysis和Application是同时存在且相辅相成的,甚至也可以加入一些key terms的阐释也就是Knowledge。

一般我会建议学生们每个方向写2-3个点(段落),那整篇文章从内容上来说就会非常的充实。

如果在描述知识点逻辑的过程中,可以作图,即结合diagram来阐述分析的逻辑链,那就大大得为你的essay加分。但是,图形的阐释往往有标准的格式,大家一定要注意,不然容易得不偿失。

除了掌握好KAA前三大要素外,要重点把握好如何写Evaluation,所谓批判性评价,不是非黑即白或者单纯的驳论,更需要考虑限制性因素以及成立条件。

首先,经济考试为什么特别爱让考生去evaluate(评估)某类经济事件的效果如何、或者某种政策方案是否能解决问题?

答案:因为现实往往十分复杂,课本上用于描述经济事件和方法的模型高度简化。在实际的经济活动中,模型所描述的现象和效果会受一系列外在因素的影响、不同经济活动参与者对同一事件的反应也不一样。而evaluation部分,评估的就是各种实际情况会有别于理论描述的可能性。

比如,在我们这篇essay中,到底通货膨胀对于国内影响更严重,还是国外影响更严重?其实很难去回答,很多时候是取决于这个国家的开放程度的,比如一个国家相对封闭,崇尚自给自足的经济模式,那对于这样的国家来说,可能外部影响的波及范围就很小:

It is difficult to determine whether domestic or external consequences of inflation can be most damaging to an economy. If an economy heavily engages in trade, then external consequences will damage the economy more, otherwise, internal consequences will be more damaging.

除此以外,我们还可以从不同的汇率体系入手:

Another factor is the exchange rate system adopted by an economy. Under a fixed exchange rate system, inflation will directly affect the export competitiveness of an economy. Under a floating exchange rate system, on the other hand, the exchange rate can depreciate and reduce the effects of inflation on export prices.

综上所述,我会建议同学们可以根据你考试的时间,写2-3个evaluation,一定要切记,每一个点都需要去解释明白背后的逻辑。

除此以外呢,常见的evaluation点包括:Long term VS Short term (长短期),Pros & Cons (优缺点) 以及 G priorities (政府的优先级)....

最后一步,也是点睛之笔的一步,我们要根据综上所述去写一个结论,所有文章都是需要有头有尾才完整,对吗?

In conclusion, both domestic and external consequences can be damaging to an economy. The extent of the consequences can differ from one economy to another, and is influenced by the openness to international trade and the type of exchange rate system.

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