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托福听力方法论(下)
分类:

留学考试

时间:2018-01-21

五、重点话题的考点

动物

1.    分类:

2.    部位,特征, 功能

3.    习性:migrate, hibernate, communicate, camouflage 注意听过程Learned, instinctual, born, innate,听天生还是后天

4.    生存状况:endangered, extinct, dye out

5.    与其他生物的关系:predator, prey

6.    栖息地habitat

7.    繁殖reproduce

8.    相关研究, t, s, ass, exp, obs, h,

植物

1.    分类:

2.    部位,特征,用途

3.    作用

4.    生存状况:endangered, extinct, dye out

5.    与其他生物的关系:parasite

6.    栖息地habitat

7.    繁殖reproduce

8.    相关研究, t, s, ass, exp, obs, h,

天文学

1.    星系:

2.    星球及其特征:

       尺寸:giant, massive, enormous,

       距离:light year, fuel

       成分:composition, be made up of, be composed of: rock, gas, (hydrogen, nitrogen), ice

       结构:crust, mantle, core

       表面:surface: volcano, mountain, riverbed, valley, basin, crater

       轨道: orbit, elliptical, axis,

3.    相关研究,发现,研究成果

4.    发现的年代,发现东西

5.    影响

6.    太空飞船做的事

 

 

地质

1.      地质现象的定义

2.      形成过程

3.      形成原因

4.      分类及例子

5.      与气候的关系

6.      与考古的关系:挖出的东西,fossil, bones, artifacts, pottery, porcelain, skull

7.      证据Evidence

8.      与生态环境的关系

哲学

1.    哲学家及其理论

2.    应用:教育,军事,公司管理

3.    例子:作用

4.    评论家的评价:形容词,听原因

5.    局限性:limitations, Critique

艺术

1.    学派:realism, expressionism

2.    艺术家及代表作

3.    如下细节:

风格,特征,技巧,创作对象,评价(原因),象征,意义,影响,局限性

历史

1.    时间顺序,时间点用来定位,之前,之后,bf, af

2.    大事件

3.    人物:who, what

4.    发展史:材质,优点,特征,缺点,象征,意义影响

5.    影响

 

六、文本分析案例

 

TPO31为例:

1  绿色:提示词  黄色:精听词汇 [ ]: 次要信息()考点说明 紫色:不认识的单词词组 

2  分段概括大意

3  考点分析:(1)标记出题点句子  2) 标记潜在的考点

每一篇的考点不一样,大家根据上课讲的考点+1608教材前面的(引出考点的单词+12个强调要点+重点话题考点)这些内容来分析标记文章中的考点。

 

 

考点分析说明出题的地方就是考点,考点和提示词,或者意群结合起来分析。例如,这里是听到actually, 所以后面有考点。这里是听到so, 所以后面要记good。听到however, 要记后面的核心词wind。这里是例子,这里是原因,这里是问答等等,这些提示内容引出了考点,要做出题考点分析,慢慢可以尝试做没有出题的考点的推测。

这是一个大致的文本分析,精听实词可以不用划这么多

Lecture2-Geology (Movement of Tectonic Plates)

Professor

As we’ve discussed, Earth’s crust is made up of large plates that rest on搁在[支撑在]…; 依赖于,寄托于上,基于a mantle of molten rock. These plates…uh…now these tectonic plates support the continents and oceans. Over time, the tectonic plates move and shift, which moves the continents and the ocean floors too. Once it was understood how these plates move, it was possible to determine past movements of Earth’s continents and how these slow movements have reshaped Earth’s features at different times.

通过地壳引出大陆板块,以及大陆板块漂移,通过大陆板块漂移解释大陆漂移和地貌。

 

OK. Well, (as)studying the movements of the plates can tell us about the location of the continents in the past, it can conceivably令人信服地 tell us about their location in the future too, right? So, in recent years, some geologists(专家做什么+观点 重点) have used plate tectonic theory to make what they call (引出新名词)geopredictions. Geopredictions are (下定义,注意听)guesses about what Earth’s surface might look like millions of years from now.

通过大陆板块理论进行geopredictions及其定义。

 

So, we know how certain continents are currently moving. For example(例子), the continents of Africa has been creeping缓慢地行进;匍匐; 爬行;蹑手蹑足地走north toward Europe. And Australia has been making its way north too, toward Asia.

Does anyone know what’s happening to the Americas? I…I think we’ve talked about that before. Lisa?

Student

They are moving westward, away from Europe and Africa. Right?

介绍现在各大陆是怎么样moving的。13题答案教授提出问题,学生的回答是答案

 

Professor

Right. And what makes us think that? (问答+原因)

Student

The Atlantic Ocean floor is spreading and getting wider, so there is more ocean between the Americas and Europe and Africa.

Professor

OK. And why is it spreading?(问答)

Student

Well, the seafloor is spilt分裂;分开. There is a ridge山脊, a mountain range山脉 that runs听不出来 north and south there. And the rock material flows up from Earth’s interior here, at the split, which forces the two sides of the ocean floor to spread apart散开, to make room for the new rock material. 14题答案,由老师提问大西洋为什么wider引出考点。

Professor

Good. And that means, over the short term…uh… and by short term I mean 50 million years, that’s a blink of the eye in geological time. Um…over the short term, we can predict that the Americas will continue to move westward, farther away from Europe, while Africa and Australia will continue to move northward.

解释美洲这样移动的原因:Atlantic Ocean floor变宽了。

再解释Atlantic Ocean floor变宽的原因:spiltnew rock…

 

But what about over the long term? Say 250 million years or more. Well, over that length of time, forecasts become more uncertain. But lots of geologists predict that eventually(专家预测,最后的结果 重点) all the continents, including Antarctica南极洲, will merge融入 and become one giant land mass, a super continent, one researchers calling Pangaea Ultima, which more or less means the last super continent.

预测long term各个大陆板块如何movingPangaea Ultima15题答案,长期的预测,转折引出考点

12题主题题答案。

 

Now, how that might happen is open to开放的 some debate. Some geologists believe that the Americas will continue to move westward and eventually merge with East Asia. This hypothesis is based on the direction the Americas are moving in now.

1hypothesisAmericasEast Asia形成Pangaea Ultima

 

But others hypothesize(假说是重点) that a new super continent will form in a different way. They think that a new subduction zone (新名词)will might occur at the western edge of the Atlantic Ocean.

Paul, can you remind us what a subduction zone is?

Student

Yeah. Um…basically, a subduction zone is(下定义) where two tectonic plates collide. So if an ocean floor tectonic plate meets the edge of a continent and they push against each other, the heavier one sinks down and goes under the other one. So the…um…the oceanic plate is made of denser and heavier rock, so it begins to sink down under the continental plate and into the mantle.

2hypothesis认为会形成subduction zone,定义。

16题答案,碰撞时oceanic plateinto mantle

 

Professor

Right. So the ocean floor would kind of slide under the edge of the continent. And once the ocean plate begins to sink, it would be affected by another forceslab pull(新名词出现). Slab pull happens at the subduction zone.

So to continue our exampleAs the ocean floor plate begins to sink down into the mantle, it would drag or pull the entire plate along with it. So more and more of this plate, the ocean floor, would go down under the continent into the mantle. OK?

subduction zone下沉的时候的另一种forceslab pull,定义,结果。

 

So, as I said, currently the Atlantic Ocean floor is spreading, getting wider, but some researchers speculate that eventually a subduction zone will occur where the oceanic plate meets the continental plate of the Americas. If that happens, slab pull could draw the oceanic crust under the continent, actually causing the Americas to move eastward toward Europe and the ocean floor to get smaller. That is, the Atlantic Ocean would start to close up, narrowing the distance between the eastern edge of the Americas and Europe and Africa. So they form a single super continent.  

2hypothesisAmericasEurope and Africa形成Pangaea Ultima

结合第1个假说,第17题答案。

 

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陈辰美国研究生

托福听力方法论(下)
更多详情

五、重点话题的考点

动物

1.    分类:

2.    部位,特征, 功能

3.    习性:migrate, hibernate, communicate, camouflage 注意听过程Learned, instinctual, born, innate,听天生还是后天

4.    生存状况:endangered, extinct, dye out

5.    与其他生物的关系:predator, prey

6.    栖息地habitat

7.    繁殖reproduce

8.    相关研究, t, s, ass, exp, obs, h,

植物

1.    分类:

2.    部位,特征,用途

3.    作用

4.    生存状况:endangered, extinct, dye out

5.    与其他生物的关系:parasite

6.    栖息地habitat

7.    繁殖reproduce

8.    相关研究, t, s, ass, exp, obs, h,

天文学

1.    星系:

2.    星球及其特征:

       尺寸:giant, massive, enormous,

       距离:light year, fuel

       成分:composition, be made up of, be composed of: rock, gas, (hydrogen, nitrogen), ice

       结构:crust, mantle, core

       表面:surface: volcano, mountain, riverbed, valley, basin, crater

       轨道: orbit, elliptical, axis,

3.    相关研究,发现,研究成果

4.    发现的年代,发现东西

5.    影响

6.    太空飞船做的事

 

 

地质

1.      地质现象的定义

2.      形成过程

3.      形成原因

4.      分类及例子

5.      与气候的关系

6.      与考古的关系:挖出的东西,fossil, bones, artifacts, pottery, porcelain, skull

7.      证据Evidence

8.      与生态环境的关系

哲学

1.    哲学家及其理论

2.    应用:教育,军事,公司管理

3.    例子:作用

4.    评论家的评价:形容词,听原因

5.    局限性:limitations, Critique

艺术

1.    学派:realism, expressionism

2.    艺术家及代表作

3.    如下细节:

风格,特征,技巧,创作对象,评价(原因),象征,意义,影响,局限性

历史

1.    时间顺序,时间点用来定位,之前,之后,bf, af

2.    大事件

3.    人物:who, what

4.    发展史:材质,优点,特征,缺点,象征,意义影响

5.    影响

 

六、文本分析案例

 

TPO31为例:

1  绿色:提示词  黄色:精听词汇 [ ]: 次要信息()考点说明 紫色:不认识的单词词组 

2  分段概括大意

3  考点分析:(1)标记出题点句子  2) 标记潜在的考点

每一篇的考点不一样,大家根据上课讲的考点+1608教材前面的(引出考点的单词+12个强调要点+重点话题考点)这些内容来分析标记文章中的考点。

 

 

考点分析说明出题的地方就是考点,考点和提示词,或者意群结合起来分析。例如,这里是听到actually, 所以后面有考点。这里是听到so, 所以后面要记good。听到however, 要记后面的核心词wind。这里是例子,这里是原因,这里是问答等等,这些提示内容引出了考点,要做出题考点分析,慢慢可以尝试做没有出题的考点的推测。

这是一个大致的文本分析,精听实词可以不用划这么多

Lecture2-Geology (Movement of Tectonic Plates)

Professor

As we’ve discussed, Earth’s crust is made up of large plates that rest on搁在[支撑在]…; 依赖于,寄托于上,基于a mantle of molten rock. These plates…uh…now these tectonic plates support the continents and oceans. Over time, the tectonic plates move and shift, which moves the continents and the ocean floors too. Once it was understood how these plates move, it was possible to determine past movements of Earth’s continents and how these slow movements have reshaped Earth’s features at different times.

通过地壳引出大陆板块,以及大陆板块漂移,通过大陆板块漂移解释大陆漂移和地貌。

 

OK. Well, (as)studying the movements of the plates can tell us about the location of the continents in the past, it can conceivably令人信服地 tell us about their location in the future too, right? So, in recent years, some geologists(专家做什么+观点 重点) have used plate tectonic theory to make what they call (引出新名词)geopredictions. Geopredictions are (下定义,注意听)guesses about what Earth’s surface might look like millions of years from now.

通过大陆板块理论进行geopredictions及其定义。

 

So, we know how certain continents are currently moving. For example(例子), the continents of Africa has been creeping缓慢地行进;匍匐; 爬行;蹑手蹑足地走north toward Europe. And Australia has been making its way north too, toward Asia.

Does anyone know what’s happening to the Americas? I…I think we’ve talked about that before. Lisa?

Student

They are moving westward, away from Europe and Africa. Right?

介绍现在各大陆是怎么样moving的。13题答案教授提出问题,学生的回答是答案

 

Professor

Right. And what makes us think that? (问答+原因)

Student

The Atlantic Ocean floor is spreading and getting wider, so there is more ocean between the Americas and Europe and Africa.

Professor

OK. And why is it spreading?(问答)

Student

Well, the seafloor is spilt分裂;分开. There is a ridge山脊, a mountain range山脉 that runs听不出来 north and south there. And the rock material flows up from Earth’s interior here, at the split, which forces the two sides of the ocean floor to spread apart散开, to make room for the new rock material. 14题答案,由老师提问大西洋为什么wider引出考点。

Professor

Good. And that means, over the short term…uh… and by short term I mean 50 million years, that’s a blink of the eye in geological time. Um…over the short term, we can predict that the Americas will continue to move westward, farther away from Europe, while Africa and Australia will continue to move northward.

解释美洲这样移动的原因:Atlantic Ocean floor变宽了。

再解释Atlantic Ocean floor变宽的原因:spiltnew rock…

 

But what about over the long term? Say 250 million years or more. Well, over that length of time, forecasts become more uncertain. But lots of geologists predict that eventually(专家预测,最后的结果 重点) all the continents, including Antarctica南极洲, will merge融入 and become one giant land mass, a super continent, one researchers calling Pangaea Ultima, which more or less means the last super continent.

预测long term各个大陆板块如何movingPangaea Ultima15题答案,长期的预测,转折引出考点

12题主题题答案。

 

Now, how that might happen is open to开放的 some debate. Some geologists believe that the Americas will continue to move westward and eventually merge with East Asia. This hypothesis is based on the direction the Americas are moving in now.

1hypothesisAmericasEast Asia形成Pangaea Ultima

 

But others hypothesize(假说是重点) that a new super continent will form in a different way. They think that a new subduction zone (新名词)will might occur at the western edge of the Atlantic Ocean.

Paul, can you remind us what a subduction zone is?

Student

Yeah. Um…basically, a subduction zone is(下定义) where two tectonic plates collide. So if an ocean floor tectonic plate meets the edge of a continent and they push against each other, the heavier one sinks down and goes under the other one. So the…um…the oceanic plate is made of denser and heavier rock, so it begins to sink down under the continental plate and into the mantle.

2hypothesis认为会形成subduction zone,定义。

16题答案,碰撞时oceanic plateinto mantle

 

Professor

Right. So the ocean floor would kind of slide under the edge of the continent. And once the ocean plate begins to sink, it would be affected by another forceslab pull(新名词出现). Slab pull happens at the subduction zone.

So to continue our exampleAs the ocean floor plate begins to sink down into the mantle, it would drag or pull the entire plate along with it. So more and more of this plate, the ocean floor, would go down under the continent into the mantle. OK?

subduction zone下沉的时候的另一种forceslab pull,定义,结果。

 

So, as I said, currently the Atlantic Ocean floor is spreading, getting wider, but some researchers speculate that eventually a subduction zone will occur where the oceanic plate meets the continental plate of the Americas. If that happens, slab pull could draw the oceanic crust under the continent, actually causing the Americas to move eastward toward Europe and the ocean floor to get smaller. That is, the Atlantic Ocean would start to close up, narrowing the distance between the eastern edge of the Americas and Europe and Africa. So they form a single super continent.  

2hypothesisAmericasEurope and Africa形成Pangaea Ultima

结合第1个假说,第17题答案。

 

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