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雅思阅读填空题的做题攻略

留学评估

2018-03-10 来源:网络


摘要: 众所周知,国内不少学生的英语学习习惯不太科学,比如说:词汇死记硬背不懂在英语语境中的应用,于是永远记不住,永远是硬伤;

  众所周知,国内不少学生的英语学习习惯不太科学,比如说:词汇死记硬背不懂在英语语境中的应用,于是永远记不住,永远是硬伤;单词只记它的字面汉语意思,查出来的对应汉语放在文中,句子意思翻译出来要么让人啼笑皆非,要么自己看着都一头雾水;阅读习惯不好,边看边翻译,回读,重读,阅读速度永远上不去;

  在雅思阅读中,填空题是除了基础题型是非无以外最简单的题型,它的难度甚至也低于对中国学生来说非常熟悉的选择题。因为选择题对单词量的考察相当大,所以对于一些单词基础比较薄弱的考生来说,得分较难。而填空题虽然也需要大家掌握一定词汇量,但整体来说技巧性比较强,很多时候即使没法完全看懂原文或者答案单词,也能把正确单词找出来,但这需要很大的技巧性。接下来,我们一起来研究一下雅思阅读填空题的基本考点及解题原则。

   

  一、填空题常见题型

  1. Summary

  即用一段或几段的内容总结文章中某一段、某几段、或整篇文章的主要内容。Summary中有几个空出的单词需要大家补充完整。其中前两种情况(一段或几段)考察较多,后一种情况(全篇)考察较少。Summary本身又分为两种考察形式,第一种是需要考生用原文原词填空,如:

  If you visit the Canadian Arctic, you immediately appreciate the problems faced by people for whom this is home. It would clearly be impossible for the people to engage in 33 as a means of supporting themselves. For thousands of years they have had to rely on catching 34 .......................... and 35 ........................ as a means of sustenance. The harsh surroundings saw many who tried to settle there pushed to their limits, although some were successful. The 36 ...........................people were an example of the latter and for them the environment did not prove unmanageable. For the present inhabitants, life continues to be a struggle. The territory of Nunavut consists of little more than ice, rock and a few 37 ........................... In recent years, many of them have been obliged to give up their 38 ........................ lifestyle, but they continue to depend mainly on 39 ......................... for their food and clothes. 40 ......................... produce is particularly expensive.

  另一种情况是给出选择项,考生只需在选项中选择正确答案即可,不需要自己填单词,如:

  Modern cargo-handling methods have had a significant effect on 23 ........................... as the business of moving freight around the world becomes increasingly streamlined. Manufacturers of computers, for instance, are able to import 24 .......................... from overseas, rather than having to rely on a local supplier. The introduction of 25.......................... has meant that bulk cargo can be safely and efficiently moved over long distances. While international shipping is now efficient, there is still a need for governments to reduce 26 .......................... in order to free up the domestic cargo sector.

  A tariffs

  B components

  C container ships

  D output

  E employees

  F insurance costs

  G trade

  H freight

  I fares

  J software

  K  international standards.

  一般认为第二种考察难度稍大。但实际做题方法与第一种类似,只需要大家在原文中找到应该填的单词后,再在选项中找一个对应的就可以了。一般是非常简单的近义词的对应或者同一词根的不同词性。

   

  2. Sentence Completion

  完成句子。此题型相当于summary的简化,即考生不需要补充段落,只需要补充完整一句话即可。所以解题方法也与summary基本类似。剑9, 10出现此题型较多,考生应该多加重视。例题如下:

  (1) EPRI receives financial support from .............. .

  (2) The advantage of the technique being developed by Diels is that it can be used………........... .

  (3) The main difficulty associated with using the laser equipment is related to its ............ .

   

  3. Diagram/Table Completion

  图表/表格填空。用图表,表格或者流程图的方式概括某处主要信息,考生同样需要把其中的空格补充完整。这种题型是填空题中难度最低的一个,考试时如果考生没有时间做完整篇文章,可先将此题做完,因为它需要的解题时间少,并且取得高正确率比较容易。例题如下:

  Early methods of producing flat glass

  MethodAdvantagesDisadvantages

  1 _______Glass remained 2______Slow

  3 ______RibbonCould produce glass sheets of varing

   4______Non-stop processGlass was

   5 _______20 of glass rubbed away

  Machines were expensive

   

  二、填空题解题技巧

  文章开头提到,填空题难度较低。如果考生能掌握正确的解题技巧,很多时候在不认识单词的情况下也能找出答案来。下面我们从注意事项和解题方法两大方面来讲解此题型。

  1. 注意题干中有无告知出题段落

  填空题的题干基本都是一样的,比如summary: Complete the summary below. / Complete the summary using the list of words A-I, below. 因此很多同学做题时都不会再去读题干。但有时候题干中会给出出题段落,比如剑六Climate Change and the Inuit中,summary题干就标明了出处:Complete the summary of paragraphs C and D below. 这样大家可以直接去C, D两段寻找答案,节省了时间。所以做题前要快速浏览题干。

   

  2. 注意题干中字数限制

  一般题干中会有Choose NO MORE THAN TWO/THREE WORDS的要求。注意所填答案字数不要超过限制。这带来一个问题,那就是在没超字数限制的情况下答案的选择问题,即是填一个词还是相邻的两个词。比如,如果原文中的相邻词汇是一个形容词加名词,那答案是两者都填还是只填名词呢?如果形容词仅仅是个简单的修饰成分,那在不超字数的前提下可填可不填。比如Pulling strings to build pyramids中:they know how to use the energy of the wind from their skills as_____. 我们定位到原文:Harnessing the wind would not have been a problem for accomplished sailors like the Egyptians. 答案到底是sailors还是accomplished sailors? 因为accomplished仅仅是一个修饰sailors的形容词,所以在不超字数的情况下可填可不填。但如果两个词是一个集合或者专用名词,那么两者都要填。

  比如Johnsons Dictionary中:Having rented a garret, he took on a number of ____, who stood at a long central desk. 我们定位到原文:James Boswell, his biographer, described the garret where Johnson worked as fitted up like a counting house with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up. 答案是copying clerks, 不能只写clerks, 因为copying clerks是一个整体,意思为书写员,只写clerks意思就不完整了。还有一种情况,原文中一处为Standard English, 两个词首字母大写,所以是一个整体,不能挑其中一个来填,所以要么都填,要么另找答案。

   

  3. 用首句做定位

  许多summary的首句一般有比较明显的定位词,比如人名、数字、地名等,所以可以用首句来定位在原文大概的位置。还是上面的例子:Climate change and the Inuit. Summary的首句是If you visit the Canadian Arctic, you immediately appreciate the problems faced by people for whom this is home. 可以根据Canadian Arctic这个大写的地名将此题定位到C段。

  再比如剑五Johnsons Dictionarysummary的首句是:In 1764 Dr Johnson accepted the contract to produce a dictionary, 可以根据1764定位到第四段附近。

   

  4. 填原词

  填原词是个非常重要的准则,即大家用来作为答案填写的单词必须是原文原词,不能随便改动单复数或者形式。比如如果考生认为某处答案为原文的A of B, A of B超字数了,就擅自改成Bs A, 这样的改动是不正确的。这种情况下首选A, 或者答案并不在此处,需要另找。或者考生认为原文答案为形容词environmental, 但这个单词放在填空的句子中语法是不正确的,擅自改动词性,变成environment, 这样也是不可以的。另外抄写答案时注意不要漏掉名词复数。

   

  5. 注意语法在此题中的重要性

  因为是填空题,所以有上下文,我们可以在寻找答案之前通过分析上下文来猜测某处答案,这里我们就用到语法了。通过语法可以判断出很多东西,比如词性、单复数、大致的意思等等。一般来说,填空题最常见的词性是名词,其次是形容词,目前为止尚未出现副词、介词等。

  例题1: Having rented a garret, he took on a number of ____, who stood at a long central desk. 通过语法,我们分析此处应该填名词,并且因为前面是a number of, 所以应该是可数名词复数,又因为后面是who引导的定语从句,所以是人。这样我们通过语法得知此处应该填一个表示人的复数名词。

  例题2: It also seems that these diseases are affecting people _____ in life than they did in the past. 通过语法中的than, 我们可以猜出此处应该填一个比较级,而选项中只有三个比较级,这样选择范围就大大缩减了。

   

  例题3: The territory of Nunavut consists of little more than ice, rock and a few______. 通过语法中的a few和并列,我们可以得知此处应该是一个可数名词复数,并且与前面的ice, rock并列。

   

  6. 定位词的选择

  在解答是非无或单选时,我们只能找某一句话中的定位词。但在填空题的summary中,原理上来说除了考题外的所有已知信息都可以用来做定位。所以做题之前读懂整篇summary的大概意思很重要,这样就能比较容易地判断出题目的大概位置。

   

  7. 尤其注意空前面的单词

  在寻找定位词的过程中,空前面的信息尤为重要,哪怕它并不是传统意义上的定位词,但起到的作用可能比人名地名等定位词还要大。并且这个方法可以帮助大家解答读不懂的题目。

  例题1 The most important step is for the school authorities to produce a _____ which makes the schools attitude toward bullying quite clear. It should include detailed ______ as to how the school and its staff will react if bullying occurs.

  第一个空前面是a. a/an/the这类词的好处在于不会变成其他词,所以是很实用的定位词。这个空在原文的答案的前面应该也有一个a. 这样我们再通过其他定位词定位到原文:Evidence suggests that a key step is to develop a policy on bully, saying clearly what is meant by bullying, and giving explicit guidelines on what will be done if it occurs. 寻找到a之后,第一个空的答案也就出来了,是policy。第二个空对一些考生来说比较难,但同样也可以使用这个方法把正确答案找出来。前面有一个形容词detailed, 根据语法判断应该填名词。答案名词的前面应该也有一个形容词与detailed对应,构成近义词。我们在附近只发现了一个形容词+名词的结构:explicit guidelines, 所以即使explicit是个生词,我们可以推测出它应该是detailed的近义词,这样答案是guidelines.

  例题2: Effective work can be done with individual pupils and small groups. For example, potential _______ of bullying can be trained to be more self-confident. 这个题的正确率非常低,是因为许多考生读不懂意思,但语法和空前面的形容词足以让大家猜测正确答案了。通过train我们定位到:Assertiveness training for pupils who are liable to be victims is worthwhile. 原文空之前有一个形容词potential, 所以答案应该是名词。原文的名词只有三个:assertiveness, pupils, victims, 前两个单词前面和后面没有任何修饰语,只有victims前面有一个短语be liable to be, 所以答案最有可能是victims.

  例题3The Eyptians knew how to use the energy of the wind from their skill as_____. 通过定位词wind定位到:Harnessing the wind would not have been a problem for accomplished sailors like the Egyptians. 介词as后面只能加名词,原文的Eyptians已经出现了,不可以。A problem, 目前尚未出现a+n这样的答案形式,只剩下sailors合适了。

  通过上述例子可以看出,熟练掌握“语法+空前面单词”的原则,即使无法完全读懂句子,也能猜出答案来。

   

  8. 答案应该是题目中没有出现过的词

  比如在读不懂的情况下猜答案时,就要避免填已经出现在已知信息中的词。如上面的例子中Effective work can be done with individual pupils and small groups. For example, potential _______ of bullying can be trained to be more self-confident. 通过语法和空前单词我们猜的有可能的词中pupils已经出现在summary的上下文中了,因此不能作为答案

   

  综上所述,雅思阅读填空题技巧性很强,若能熟练掌握注意事项和解题原则,正确率将有很大提高。 

  

 

  

   以上是前途出国留学专家为您总结的雅思阅读填空题的做题攻略。如需进一步了解,或有任何相关疑问,欢迎点击【在线咨询】英国留学专家,以便给您进行精准定位。如果您对自己是否适合英国留学还有疑虑,欢迎参与前途出国免费评估。           

  

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